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我国海滩养护修复的发展与技术创新
蔡锋,刘根
0
(1.自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005;2.福建省海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
21世纪以来,海滩养护技术开始在我国得到应用并迅速发展。本研究基于对过去十几年来我国海滩养护技术的跟踪与深度研究,通过研读文献、资料收集和数据统计,分析了我国海滩养护发展现状及特征,总结归纳了我国在海滩养护技术方面的创新,最后展望了海滩养护的未来发展并提出了建议。研究发现,我国的海滩养护工程在2005年之前较少,此后快速持续增加;在3种养护目的中,滨海旅游占绝大多数,达61.7%;修复海滩类型中,人造海滩和修复受损海滩的比例相当,同质养护和异质养护的占比分别为51.1%和48.9%;在养护海滩的平面形态中,岬湾形态的占比最高,达43.6%。结果表明,我国在海滩修复养护技术中取得了一些创新,主要包括强潮海岸、强侵蚀海岸、淤泥质海岸等多种动力条件下的海滩修复理论和理念,以及海滩城市排水优化设计、海滩生态养护潜堤等技术方法。
关键词:  海洋地质学  海滩养护修复  技术创新  人工沙滩  中国海岸
DOI:
基金项目:福建省自然科学基金资助项目(2018J01061);自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费资助项目(20170305);海洋公益性行业科研专项资助项目(201405037)
Beach nourishment development and technological innovations in China: an overview
CAI Feng,LIU Gen
(1. Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Protection and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Since the 21st century, beach nourishment has been widely used and rapidly developed in China. Based on the followup study and intensive research on beach nourishment in China over recent decade or so, the status, characteristics, and technological innovations of beach nourishment projects in China are summarized after literature review, data acquisition and statistics. Also, the future development of beach nourishment is prospected and suggestions were put forward. The results demonstrated that China had a limited number of beach nourishment projects before 2005 in contrast to the rapid developments after 2005. Among the three purposes of implementing beach nourishment projects, it is found that the main purpose is for coastal tourism, which accounts for 61.7%. For the types of beach nourishment projects, the proportions of restored and constructed beaches are almost the same. The proportions of homogeneous and heterogeneous nourishments are 51.1% and 48.9%, respectively. For the plane configurations of beach nourishment projects, the proportion of headlandbay beaches is the highest (43.6%). The study indicates that China achieves a number of technological innovations in the beach nourishment, including the application of concept and theory on the beach nourishment under macrotidal environments, on strongly eroded coasts and muddy coasts and the optimized design of urban drain pipe and the ecological design of submerged breakwater on the beach.
Key words:  marine geology  beach nourishment and restoration  technological innovation  artificial beaches  coastal China

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