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滨海湿地生态修复若干问题探讨
陈彬,俞炜炜,陈光程,郑新庆,黄海萍,胡文佳,马志远
0
(1.自然资源部第三海洋研究所, 福建 厦门 361005; 2.福建省海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
滨海湿地是地球上生产力最高、生物多样性最丰富的生态系统之一,然而由于强烈的人为活动,滨海湿地遭到严重破坏甚至丧失。滨海湿地退化是世界各国普遍面临的问题,退化滨海湿地生态系统的修复也已成为国际上生态学研究的热点。本文在分析国内外研究进展的基础上,从生态退化诊断、修复目标、修复措施、修复监测、修复成效评估等几个关键问题对滨海湿地生态修复进行了探讨。滨海湿地生态退化诊断主要采用参照系统对比法,即选取退化生态系统干扰前、邻近未受干扰或干扰小、或参考多方面资料而构造的假设生态系统等作为参照进行对比;生态修复最终目标不是简单地恢复生态系统的结构和功能,更重要的是建立一个能自我维持、自我调控或在较少人为辅助下能健康运行的滨海湿地生态系统;生态修复途径包括自然恢复、人工促进生态修复和生态重建,只有在自然恢复不能实现的情况下,才考虑采取人工促进生态修复或生态重建;生态修复监测参数包括结构参数和功能参数,监测覆盖施工前、施工期和施工后全过程;滨海湿地生态修复成效评估需同时考虑生态结构、生态功能及生态服务。目前,我国滨海湿地生态修复尚存在退化机制及恢复机理认识不足;滨海湿地生态修复技术储备不足,关键技术不能满足需求;修复的区域空间尺度较小,系统性和完整性不足,缺乏国家和区域生态修复规划;滨海湿地生态修复后期管理、监测、成效评估不足。为此建议:①注重滨海湿地恢复生态学的基础理论研究;②强调滨海湿地生态修复的系统性、综合性和完整性,推动整体规划、区域统筹、系统修复;③加强典型滨海湿地的生态修复关键技术研发,如红树林生态系统功能恢复和提升技术,海草、盐沼植物等种苗人工繁殖和种植技术,珊瑚有性繁殖技术和珊瑚礁生态系统功能恢复技术等;④注重滨海湿地生态修复的后期管理及公众参与。
关键词:  海洋环境科学  生态修复  滨海湿地  退化诊断  目标  监测  成效评估
DOI:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助项目(2017YFC0506105);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)资助项目 (2015CB452905)
Coastal wetland restoration:an overview
CHEN Bin,YU Wei-wei,CHEN Guang-cheng,ZHENG Xin-qing,HUANG Hai-ping,HU Wen-jia,MA Zhi-yuan
(1. Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;2. Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Coastal wetlands are among the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems on the earth. However, they have been seriously degraded or even lost due to intensive anthropogenic activities. The degradation of coastal wetlands is a worldwide common issue and the ecological restoration of coastal wetlands has become a global hotspot for ecologists. Based on the current knowledge at home and abroad, this paper overviews the progress in ecological restoration of coastal wetlands, focusing on key issues including ecosystem degradation diagnosis, restoration goal, restoration measures, monitoring and effectiveness evaluation of the restoration. The degradation diagnosis of coastal wetlands is generally based on the comparison of a targeted ecosystem or a reference ecosystem, which can be the predisturbed status, adjacent undisturbed or slightly disturbed ecosystem, or a hypothetical ecosystem derived from multiinformation. The ultimate goal of ecological restoration is to establish a selfsustainable and selfregulatory ecosystem with or without limited artificial intervention, rather than to simply restore the structure and function of ecosystem. Ecological restoration includes natural restoration, artificial restoration and ecological reconstruction, while artificial restoration or ecological reconstruction should only be considered when natural restoration can not be achieved. Monitoring of an ecological restoration should cover the structure and functions of the ecosystem, and it should be carried out before, during and after activities undertaken. Recovery of ecosystem structure, ecosystem functions and services should also be taken into account to evaluate the effectiveness of an ecological restoration project. In China, mechanisms on the ecosystem degradation and restoration of coastal wetlands are not adequately recognized. The technologies and methods are not soundly developed to be applicable for the ecological restoration. The spatial scale is usually small and in lack of systematicity and the integrity of the space and there is also a lack of comprehensive planning on national or regional scale. The postrestoration management, monitoring and success evaluation of ecological restorations should also be enhanced. Therefore, we suppose the following considerations to promote the future ecological restoration in China: ① to pay attention to the fundamental researches of restoration ecology of coastal wetlands. ② to highlight the systematicity, comprehensiveness and integrity of coastal wetland restoration, and promote overall planning, regional coordination and systematic restoration. ③ to facilitate researches and developments of restoration technologies, such as restoration and improvement technologies of ecosystem functions of mangrove wetlands, artificial reproduction, nursery and planting technologies of seagrass and salt marsh plants, and coral sexual reproduction and reef functional restoration technologies. ④ to pay more attention to the management measures and public participation in coastal wetland ecological restoration.
Key words:  marine evironment and science  ecological restoration  coastal wetlands  degradation assessment  restoration goal  monitoring  effectiveness evaluation

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