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滨海蓝碳碳汇项目开发现状及推动我国蓝碳碳汇项目开发的建议
陈光程,王静,许方宏,杨袁筱月,范敏,黄山枫,王振阳,杨彪,聂曦,陈顺洋,张晶,陈彬
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(自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005;自然资源部北部湾滨海湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站,广西 北海536015;北京市企业家环保基金会,北京 100012;广东湛江红树林国家级自然保护区管理局,广东 湛江524088;丹麦哥本哈根大学经济系,哥本哈根 1353;北京市朝阳区永续全球环境研究所,北京100600;环保桥(上海)环境技术有限公司,上海 200120;中国质量认证中心,北京 100070)
摘要:
市场机制是实现蓝碳及蓝碳生态系统价值的有效途径,对于发挥蓝碳生态系统在应对气候变化方面的作用具有积极意义。本文梳理了当前碳市场中蓝碳碳汇项目的发展机遇和项目开发的现状,并就我国蓝碳碳汇项目开发面临的问题进行分析并提出建议,以期为推进蓝碳碳汇项目开发和市场发展提供科学参考。当前,清洁发展机制(Clean Development Mechanism, CDM)和核证碳标准(Verified Carbon Standard, VCS)都已开发了蓝碳碳汇项目或可用于蓝碳碳汇项目的方法学,并开发了多个CDM、VCS和Plan Vivo Standard认证的红树林碳汇项目。我国已成功开发并交易了首个蓝碳碳汇项目“湛江红树林造林项目”,并且将继续推动蓝碳碳汇项目的开发和交易市场的发展。但我国在碳汇项目开发上存在项目规模小、证明项目额外性时具有一定的不确定性、蓝碳资源管理机构作为碳减排量所有者和交易主体自主支配碳汇收益受到限制等不利因素。对此,建议可通过加强营造蓝碳碳汇项目开发的良好环境,充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用以及政府的引导作用,吸引社会资本参与生态保护修复,鼓励社会资金投资或购买项目生产的效益,拓宽蓝碳生态系统保护修复资金渠道等措施,推进我国蓝碳碳汇交易市场的发展。
关键词:  海洋环境科学  红树林  蓝碳  碳市场  方法学
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2022.02.001
基金项目:福建省自然科学基金资助项目(2020J06030);国家自然科学基金资助项目(41776102);自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费资助项目(海三科2020017)
Progress of coastal wetland blue carbon projects in carbon market and advice on facilitating the development of blue carbon projects in China
CHEN Guangcheng,WANG Jing,XU Fanghong,YANG Yuanxiaoyue,FAN Min,HUANG Shanfeng,WANG Zhenyang,YANG Biao,NIE Xi,CHEN Shunyang,ZHANG Jing,CHEN Bin
(Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China; Observation and Research Station of Coastal Wetland Ecosystem in Beibu Gulf, MNR, Beihai 536015, China;SEE Foundation, Beijing 100012, China;Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve Administration,Zhanjiang 524088, China;University of Copenhagen School of Economics, Copenhagen 1353, Denmark;Global Environmental Institute, Beijing 100600, China;Climate Bridge (Shanghai) Ltd., Shanghai 200120, China;China Quality Certification Centre, Beijing 100070, China)
Abstract:
Carbon market mechanism is an effective way to realize the value of blue carbon and blue carbon ecosystem, which is important to play the role of blue carbon ecosystem in coping with climate change. In this paper, we overview the opportunity and progress of blue carbon projects (BCPs) and propose advice on facilitating the development of BCPs in the current carbon market according to the problems faced by the BCP development in China. Currently, methodologies have been approved under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) for BCP, and numerous BCPs have been developed worldwide verified by CDM, VCS and Plan Vivo Standard. In 2021, China has successfully developed and traded the first BCP, “Zhanjiang mangrove afforestation project”, and will continuously facilitate the development of BCPs. However, many challenges still exist and limit the administrative ability to promote implementation of more BCPs. For example, the BCPs usually have comparatively small scale and face uncertainties in approval of additionality. Moreover, as owners of emission reduction credits and major entities on the trading market, the management agencies of blue carbon resources are limited in disposal of financial benefits from carbon trading. Therefore, we recommend a favorable environment for BCP development, and emphasize the role of the market mechanism in resource allocation and the guiding role of the government to promote the development of blue carbon market of China. In addition, to attract more funds from the private sectors to participate in protection and restoration of blue carbon ecosystems, to encourage them to invest or purchase carbon credits and to broaden the investment sources for protection and restoration activities are also important in the development of blue carbon market of China.
Key words:  marine environmental science  mangrove  blue carbon  carbon market  methodology

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