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全球变化背景下暖水珊瑚礁生态系统的适应性与修复研究
蔡榕硕,郭海峡,ABD-ELGAWADAmro,牛文涛
0
(自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
暖水珊瑚礁生态系统是热带海域最具生物多样性和代表性的生态系统之一。本研究分析了全球变化背景下暖水珊瑚礁生态系统的变化和风险,开展了受损暖水珊瑚礁生态系统退化和消失的致灾因子归因分析,综述了暖水珊瑚礁生态系统的适应性与修复技术研究。分析表明:① 过去几十年来,暖水珊瑚礁生态系统快速退化, 包括大面积白化和死亡、多样性明显减少和生态功能显著衰退,主要归因于海洋升温与人类活动等致灾因子的影响;② 在温室气体高排放浓度情景下(RCP 8.5),相比工业革命前,到本世纪中叶,南海升温将可能远超过2 ℃,这表明南海暖水珊瑚礁生态系统正在逼近其气候临界点,即全球升温高于2 ℃时,90%~99%以上的暖水珊瑚将消失;③ 1980年代以来,海洋升温、海洋热浪和强热带气旋等海洋气候变化致灾因子对南海暖水珊瑚的危害性(影响的强度、范围和时间)明显增加,对暖水珊瑚礁生态系统产生了严重的影响;与此同时,近岸海域的过度或破坏性捕捞、采挖和潜水等人类活动,对暖水珊瑚造成了严重损害,增加了暖水珊瑚的气候脆弱性,而这种人类活动既是局部的,也是全球性的现象,使得暖水珊瑚更难以适应全球变暖的影响。分析还表明,为了增强暖水珊瑚适应气候与环境变化的恢复力(韧性),人们开展了诸多受损珊瑚礁生态系统的适应性与修复研究,但主要是采用无性繁殖或结合人工基质的修复方式,而应用有性繁殖技术恢复受损珊瑚礁的方式仍较少;最近,暖水珊瑚耐热的基因适应性研究取得了重要进展,为暖水珊瑚适应全球变暖提供了一种新的途径。本研究最后探讨了中国受损珊瑚礁生态系统的修复问题与对策。
关键词:  海洋环境科学  全球变化  暖水珊瑚礁生态系统  风险  适应性  修复
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2021.01.002
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“全球变化及应对”专项资助项目(2017YFA0604902);自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(海三科2020001、2020002)
A study on the adaptation and restoration of warm water coral reef ecosystem in the context of global change
CAI Rong-shuo,GUO Hai-xia,ABD-ELGAWAD Amro,NIU Wen-tao
(Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Warm water coral (hereafter, coral) reef ecosystem is one of the most representative ecosystems in tropical waters. This article reviews the longterm changes of warm water coral reef ecosystem and its hazard factors under the background of global change, including the impacts and risks of climate change and human activities, and summarizes the research progress of global change adaptability and restoration technology of coral reef ecosystem. The results show that: 1. over the past decades, coral reef ecosystem has experienced rapid degradation, including mass coral bleaching and death, significant decline of diversity and ecological function, which is mainly due to the impacts of ocean warming and human activities. 2. It is estimated that, at high greenhouse gas emission scenario such as RCP8.5, the South China Sea (SCS) is very likely to be 2 ℃ of warming above the preindustrial levels by the midcentury at current linear warming rate of China seas, indicating that the climate tipping point of coral reef ecosystem in the SCS is very close, i.e., more than 90%-99% of the corals are projected to disappear at 2 ℃ of global warming. 3. Since the 1980s, the climateinduced hazard effects of intensity, extent and duration from ocean warming, heat waves and super strong tropical cyclones on corals have significantly increased, and led mass coral bleaching and the loss of corals worldwide. At the same time, human activities such as destructive fishing and overfishing, logging and diving in coastal coral reef waters are not only local, but also global phenomenon, not only cause to damage on corals, but also increase the climate vulnerability of corals, making them more difficult to adapt to global warming. The analysis also shows that, in order to enhance the ability of coral to adapt to global changes, the study and practice on restoration and adaptation of damaged coral reef ecosystems have been carried out, mainly by means of asexual reproduction or combined with artificial matrix restoration, while sexual reproduction has been less used to restore damaged coral reefs. Recently, great progress has been made in the study on the adaptability of coral to heat resistance. Finally, this article discusses the restoration of damaged coral reef ecosystem and the related countermeasures in China.
Key words:  marine environmental science  global change  coral reef ecosystem  risk  adaptation  restoration

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