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莆田近岸海域污损生物群落结构及其时空格局
彭亚,李众,林和山,刘坤,黄雅琴,林俊辉,何雪宝,牟剑锋,张舒怡,马丽,王建军
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(1.长江三峡集团福建能源投资有限公司,福建 福州 350003; 2.自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
于2017年6月至2018年5月在莆田近岸海域进行污损生物周年挂板试验,全年共记录污损生物11门94种,群落组成以近岸暖水种为主,属于典型的亚热带内湾型群落,网纹藤壶(Amphibalanus reticulatus)是最主要的优势种和代表种,其次为翡翠贻贝(Perna viridis)、中胚花筒螅(Ectopleura crocea)、太平洋侧花海葵(Anthopleura nigrescens)、侧花海葵(Anthopleura sp.)、细毛背鳞虫(Lepidonotus tenuisetosus)、福建牡蛎(Magallana angulata)、三角藤壶(Balanus trigonus)、加尔板钩虾(Stenothoe gallensis)、镰形叶钩虾(Jassa falacata)、长鳃麦杆虫(Caprella equilibra)、角突麦杆虫(Caprella scaura)、大室别藻苔虫(Biflustra grandicella)等。春季为该海区污损生物的附着旺季,其附着厚度、覆盖面积、附着密度和湿重分别为25 mm、100%、65 713 ind./m2、1 735.1 g/m2,其次分别为夏季、秋季和冬季,上半年的附着强度明显高于下半年,表底层污损生物的种类和数量组成差异并不大,主要区别在于表层有部分藻类的附着,而底层几乎没有藻类分布。
关键词:  海洋生物学  污损生物  优势种  群落结构  莆田
DOI:
基金项目:海洋公益性行业科研专项资助项目(201505027-5);国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费资助项目(海三科2013006)
Community structure and its spatio-temporal patterns of fouling organism in nearshore waters of Putian, China
PENG Ya,LI Zhong,LIN He-shan,LIU Kun,HUANG Ya-qin,LIN Jun-hui,HE Xue-bao,MOU Jian-feng,ZHANG Shu-yi,MA Li,WANG Jian-jun
(1. Yangtze River Three Gorges Group Fujian Energy Investment Co., Ltd., Fuzhou 350003, China; 2. Laboratory of Marine Biology and Ecology, Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
The investigation of marine fouling assemblages on concrete test panels in nearshore waters in the northeast of Putian was conducted from June 2017 to May 2018. A total of 94 species of fouling organisms belonging to 11 phyla were identified. The fouling organisms were mainly composed of coastal and warm water affinities and reflected distinct characteristics of subtropical embayment community. The dominant species were Amphibalanus reticulates and other major species included Perna viridis, Ectopleura crocea, Anthopleura nigrescens, Anthopleura sp., Lepidonotus tenuisetosus, Magallana angulate, Balanus trigonus, Stenothoe gallensis, Jassa falacata, Caprella equilibra, Caprella scaura, Biflustra grandicella, etc. The adhesive strength of the fouling organisms was the highest in spring. Its thickness, area, density and biomass colonized were 25 mm, 100%, 65 713 ind./m2 and 1 735.1 g/m2, respectively. Then it was followed by summer, autumn and winter. The adhesion strength in the first half of the year was significantly higher than that in the second half of the year. The vertical distribution of adhesion strength was not obvious. The main difference was that some alga adhered to the surface layer, while there was almost no algae found on the bottom layer.
Key words:  marine biology  fouling organism  dominant species  community structure  Putian

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