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兴化湾污损生物群落结构及其时空格局
吴加文,李众,林和山,刘坤,黄雅琴,林俊辉,何雪宝,牟剑锋,张舒怡,马丽,王建军
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(1.长江三峡集团福建能源投资有限公司,福建 福州 350003; 2.自然资源部第三海洋研究所海洋生物与生态实验室,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
于2017年6月至2018年5月在兴化湾口东北面进行污损生物周年挂板试验,全年共记录污损生物12门94种,群落组成以近岸暖水种为主,主要表现为典型的亚热带内湾型群落。网纹藤壶(Amphibalanus reticulatus)是最主要的优势种和代表种,其平均附着密度和湿重分别可达23 394 ind./m2和8 494.4 g/m2。其它优势种还有刚毛藻(Cladophora sp.)、叉节藻(Amphiroa sp.)、中胚花筒螅(Ectopleura crocea)、双列笔螅(Pennaria disticha)、细毛背鳞虫(Lepidonotus tenuisetosus)、翡翠贻贝(Perna viridis)、福建牡蛎(Magallana angulata)、三角藤壶(Balanus trigonus)、加尔板钩虾(Stenothoe gallensis)、长鳃麦杆虫(Caprella equilibra)、角突麦杆虫(Caprella scaura)、大室别藻苔虫(Biflustra grandicella)、史氏菊海鞘(Botryllus schlosseri)等。夏季为污损生物的附着旺季,其附着厚度、覆盖面积、附着密度和湿重分别为30.5 mm、100%、25 175 ind./m2、8 783.6 g/m2,其次分别为秋季、春季和冬季,下半年的附着强度明显高于上半年,附着强度的垂直分布差异并不明显,主要区别在于表层有部分藻类附着,而底层几乎没有藻类分布。
关键词:  海洋生物学  污损生物  群落结构  兴化湾  福清
DOI:
基金项目:海洋公益性行业科研专项资助项目(201505027-5); 中国长江三峡集团公司科研资助项目(CTGFB/0014-2016)
Community structure and its spatio-temporal patterns of marine fouling organisms in Xinghua Bay
WU Jia-wen,LI Zhong,LIN He-shan,LIU Kun,HUANG Ya-qin,LIN Jun-hui,HE Xue-bao,MOU Jian-feng,ZHANG Shu-yi,MA Li,WANG Jian-jun
(1. Yangtze River Three Gorges Group Fujian Energy Investment Co., Ltd., Fuzhou 350003, China; 2. Laboratory of Marine Biology and Ecology, Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
The investigation of marine fouling assemblages on concrete test panels in the northeast of Xinghua Bay was conducted from June 2017 to May 2018. A total of 94 species of fouling organisms belonging to 12 phyla were identified. The fouling organisms were mainly composed of coastal and warm water affinities and reflected distinct characteristics of subtropical embayments. The dominant species were Amphibalanus reticulates, its average density and biomass were 23 394 ind./m2 and 8 494.4 g/m2, respectively. Other major species included Cladophora sp., Amphiroa sp., Ectopleura crocea,Pennaria disticha,Lepidonotus tenuisetosus,Perna viridis,Magallana angulata,Balanus trigonus,Stenothoe gallensis,Caprella equilibra,Caprella scaura,Biflustra grandicella,Botryllus schlosseri,etc. The adhesive strength of the fouling organisms was highest in summer. The thickness, area, density and biomass colonized of the fouling were 30.5 mm, 100%, 25 175 ind./m2 and 8 783.6 g/m2, respectively. Followed by autumn, spring and winter,respectively. The adhesion strength in the second half of the year was significantly higher than that in the first half of the year. The vertical distribution of adhesion strength was not obvious. The main difference was that some algae adhered to the surface layer, while there was almost no algae distribution on the bottom layer.
Key words:  marine biology  marine fouling  community structure  Xinghua Bay  Fuqing

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