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1991~2013年发生在西沙永兴岛的台风风暴潮统计特征分析
梁海萍,梁海燕,陈海南,陈道严
0
(国家海洋局海口海洋环境监测中心站, 海南 海口 570100)
摘要:
利用1991~2013年西沙海洋站实测的潮位、气压、风资料,统计分析发生在西沙永兴岛的台风风暴潮特征.统计结果为以后的台风风暴潮增水预报工作提供一定借鉴.统计分析发现:发生在永兴岛的台风风暴潮过程年最大增水值基本在34cm处上下波动,最高预警级别仅为蓝色;最大增水有明显的年际变化特征,预计接下来10a左右发生在永兴岛的台风风暴增水值大体逐年递减;最大增水若与极大天文潮相叠加,在永兴岛可能出现灾害性高潮位;年最大增水有明显的季节特征,在夏季最强,其次为秋季,冬季和春季最弱;台风中心经过时由负压引起的增水较为明显,单峰型、双峰型和振荡型的增水曲线形态均有出现;影响西沙永兴岛的热带气旋的年最大风速年际与季节性变化是导致永兴岛台风风暴潮特征的主要成因之一.
关键词:  海洋气象学  风暴增水  统计分析  年际  季节  最大风速
DOI:
基金项目:海南省科技兴海专项资助项目(XH201425); 国家海洋局南海分局海洋科学技术局长基金资助项目(1666)
Statistical characteristic of the tropical storm surge in Yongxing of Xisha islands in 1991~2013
LIANG Hai-ping,LIANG Hai-yan,CHEN Hai-nan,CHEN Dao-yan
(Haikou Marine Environment Monitoring Station, SOA, Haikou 570100,China)
Abstract:
With data of tide, air pressure and wind at Xihsa station in 1991~2013 the features of typhoon storm at Yongxing Island were statistically analysis for the information of typhoon surge forecasting. It is found that the largest fluctuation of typhoon storm surge is at 34cm basically. The highest level of warning is the blue scale. The strongest surge occurs in the summer, followed by autumn, winter and spring. If the highest surge occurs with great astronomical tide, severe high water level might occur at Yongxing Island. Surge has obvious seasonal characteristic, the strongest is in the autumn, followed by summer, winter and spring. Surging is much clearly caused by the negative pressure when the typhoon passed with occurrence of unimodal, bimodal or oscillation mode. The maximum interannual wind speed and the seasonal change of tropical cyclone are the most important characteristics of typhoon storm surge affecting Yongxing Island.
Key words:  marine meteorology  storm surge  statistical analysis  annual  season  maximum wind speed

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