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鱼类在海洋碳循环中的作用及研究展望
张智,王飞鹏,李荣茂,穆景利
0
(闽江学院地理与海洋学院 福建省海洋生物多样性保护与永续利用重点实验室,福建 福州 350122;福建省渔业资源监测中心,福建 福州 350003)
摘要:
碳中和是应对气候变化的必由之路,海洋负排放是实现碳中和的重要途经。海洋作为地球最大碳库,研究发现越来越多的海洋和海岸带生物参与碳循环,并对海洋碳汇产生重要贡献。鱼类作为海洋生态系统中最重要组成部分之一,其在海洋碳循环中的作用还没有引起足够的重视。最新研究表明海洋鱼类在无机碳循环中发挥了重要作用,深化对鱼类参与碳循环过程的认识、量化其固碳潜力将有助于丰富海洋碳循环研究。本文首先系统梳理了鱼类参与碳循环的过程和机制等研究进展。鱼类通过产生碳酸盐粪便、水平和垂直迁移运输、生物扰动、生物碳和“尸体”碳以及食物网消耗与传输等方式参与海洋碳循环。鱼类参与碳循环的证据和参与海洋碳循环的重要性逐渐凸显。其次,本文提出目前鱼类参与碳循环研究存在的问题与挑战,包括渔业捕捞源汇之争、水产养殖业的机遇和挑战以及准确量化鱼源碳酸盐的困难,仍有待理论和方法学的深化研究和技术的革新去解决。最后本文提出鱼类参与碳循环的研究展望,及其在全球气候变化背景下的潜在机遇,同时结合当前渔业碳汇的发展进程以及行业需求,提出渔业减排固碳发展路径建议。本文旨在提升鱼类在海洋碳循环贡献和服务生态系统的潜力的认识,为海洋碳汇和渔业碳汇研究提供新的视角。
关键词:  海洋碳循环  渔业碳汇  无机碳  颗粒有机碳  碳中和与碳达峰
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.20230417001
基金项目:福建省促进海洋与渔业产业高质量发展专项资金(FJHJF-TH-2023-3, FJHJF-L-2022-12);福建省科技计划项目引导性项目(2023N01010293);自然资源部海洋生态监测与修复技术重点实验室开放研究基金(MEMRT202110)
Progresses and prospects on the study of fish roles in marine carbon cycles
ZHANG Zhi,WANG Feipeng,LI Rongmao,MU Jingli
(Fujian Key Laboratory on Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Marine Biodiversity, College of Geography and Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350122, China;Fisheries Resources Monitoring Center of Fujian Province, Fuzhou 350003, China)
Abstract:
Carbon neutrality is the necessary path to cope with climate change. Marine negative emissions are an important way to achieve carbon neutrality. As the largest carbon reservoir on the earth, the ocean and coastal zone have been extensively studied as carbon sinks with the participations of various marine organisms. However, the role of fish, one of the most important components of marine ecosystems in carbon cycling has not received sufficient attention. Recent studies show that marine fish play an important role in the inorganic carbon cycle. A deeper understanding of the involvement of fish in the carbon cycle and quantifying their carbon sequestration potential can improve our understanding of ocean carbon cycling. In this paper, firstly we systematically review the progress of research on the process and mechanisms of fish involvement in carbon cycling. Fish participate in ocean carbon cycling through various pathways, including carbonate fecal production, horizontal and vertical migration and transport, bioturbation, biological and carcass carbon, and food web consumption and transfer. The evidence of fish involvement in carbon cycling and the importance of their roles become evident. Secondly, we presented the existing problems and challenges in the studies, including the debate on fishery source and sink, opportunities and challenges for aquaculture, and difficulties in accurately quantifying fish-derived carbonate. These issues require further theoretical and methodological studies as well as technological innovation to address. Finally, we propose the research prospects of fish involvement in carbon cycling and its potential opportunities in the context of global climate change. Based on the current development process and demand of fishery carbon sequestration, we provide suggestions for the development path of fishery emission reduction and carbon sequestration. We hope the studies can enhance understanding of the contribution of fish to ocean carbon cycling and their potential to serve ecosystems, providing new perspectives for ocean carbon and fishery carbon sequestration research.
Key words:  marine carbon cycle  fishery carbon sink  inorganic carbon  particulate organic carbon  carbon peak and carbon neutrality

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