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南方典型富营养化海区生态修复技术与策略
汤坤贤,范祥,李和阳,马勇,张飞,孙元敏
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(福建省海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室,福建 厦门 361005;自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005;自然资源部海峡西岸海岛海岸带生态系统野外观测研究站,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
陆源排污和海水养殖等经常造成近海富营养化。选用大型海藻或大型海藻与贝类组成的复合生态系统开展富营养化海区生态修复,在介绍富营养化海区特征及治理方法的基础上,分析不同修复生物及其组合对不同富营养化海区的适宜性。结果表明,贝类不宜单独作为修复生物;大型海藻可以有效吸收水中的溶解无机氮(DIN)、溶解无机磷(DIP),提高溶解氧(DO)浓度,是良好的富营养化海区修复生物。贝藻复合生态系统适宜在营养盐和颗粒物含量较高的海区开展生态修复。针对两种典型的富营养化海区(网箱养殖区、污水排放区),制定不同的生态修复技术和策略,介绍不同修复技术的修复生物品种选择、修复时间、养殖筏架、密度控制、操作方法与实施效果等,具有较好的应用前景,可为富营养化海区的生态修复研究与实践提供参考。
关键词:  海洋生物学  富营养化  生态修复  贝类  大型海藻
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2021.01.016
基金项目:厦门海洋研究开发院共建资助项目(K200701);广东省自然资源厅海洋经济发展基金资助项目(2019011)
Ecological restoration techniques and strategies for typical eutrophication sea areas in southern China
TANG Kun-xian,FAN Xiang,LI He-yang,MA Yong,ZHANG Fei,SUN Yuan-min
(Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;Observation and Research Station of Island and Coastal Ecosystem in the Western Taiwan Strait, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;Observation and Research Station of Island and Coastal Ecosystem in the Western Taiwan Str np n-? np ?)
Abstract:
Landbased sewage and maricultures often lead to coastal eutrophication. Used macroalgae along or combined system of macroalgae and shellfish to restorate the eutrophic marine ecosystem with corresponding culture rafts designed and developed according to different biological organisms and sea conditions, the suitability of remediation organisms to different eutrophic sea areas was analyzed in this paper. The results show that shellfish along was not suitable for remediation. However, macroalgae was recommended due to its high absorbability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in addition to its ability of adding dissolved oxygen to seawater. Shellfish-algae system was effective especially in the sea areas with high contents of nutrients and particles. Using two typical eutrophic sea areas, i.e., cage breeding area and sewage discharge sea area, different ecological restoration technologies and strategies were formulated and methods and effects of various technologies were introduced. The promising strategies includes choosing remediating species, remediating time, culture raft, density controlling, operation method, implementation effect, etc. This paper can provide a reference for ecological restoration practices in eutrophic sea areas.
Key words:  marine biology  eutrophication  ecological restoration  shellfish  macroalgae

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