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国家管辖范围以外区域环境影响评价的筛选机制研究
肖成,张继伟,姜玉环,罗阳
0
(自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
国家管辖范围以外区域(Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, ABNJ)海洋生物多样性养护与可持续利用问题是当前国际社会共同关注的一个焦点。联合国大会2015年通过关于BBNJ(Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction)养护和可持续利用问题的69/292号决议,决定在《联合国海洋法公约》框架下制定具有法律约束力的新协定(BBNJ国际协议)。环境影响评价是BBNJ国际协议的重要组成部分。对ABNJ当前主要的人类活动以及现有环境管理机制进行梳理,结合国际层面和区域组织的环境影响评价框架以及主要国家的环境影响评价实践,对ABNJ主要人类活动的环境影响评价筛选机制进行研究,着重分析以“重大不利影响”作为环境影响评价的启动门槛的正当性;并从项目的选址、项目特征和项目影响这3个主要因素出发,阐明适用于ABNJ的环境影响评价筛选标准;最后,基于不同类型活动的综合分析,就ABNJ环境影响评价的适用活动范围进行初步探讨,并尝试为ABNJ环境影响评价适用的活动清单提出方案设想。
关键词:  海洋环境科学  国家管辖范围以外区域  环境影响评价  筛选  标准  活动
DOI:
基金项目:国家海洋局国际合作司资助项目(HC180701)
Research on screening mechanism of environmental impact assessment in areas beyond national jurisdiction
XIAO Cheng,ZHANG Ji-wei,JIANG Yue-huan,LUO Yang
(Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR,Xiamen 361005,China)
Abstract:
The issue of conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) is a common concern of the international community. In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 69/292 on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ), and decided to formulate a new legally binding agreement (BBNJ International Agreement) within the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Environmental impact assessments (EIA) become an important part of BBNJ International Agreement. This paper hackles current major human activities and existing EIA in ABNJ and combines the international and regional environmental impact assessment framework and major countries’EIA practices for the study of EIA screening mechanism of important human activities in ABNJ. Focused on the analysis of the“significant adverse impact” as the threshold for the initiation of EIA, the EIA screening criteria applicable to ABNJ are clarified based on three important factors, i.e. project site selection, project characteristics and project impact. At last, a preliminary discussion on the scope of applicable activities for EIA in ABNJ is discussed based on comprehensive analysis of different types of activities. Also, a plan is proposed for the list of activities applicable for EIA in ABNJ.
Key words:  marine environmental science  areas beyond national jurisdiction  environmental impact assessment  screening criteria  activity

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