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海南西北部近岸海域浮游动物群落结构
杨杰青,欧阳珑玲,史赟荣,晁敏,袁琪,王云龙
0
(中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所、农业农村部东海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200090;中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所、农业农村部东海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200091;中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所、农业农村部东海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200092;中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所、农业农村部东海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200093;中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所、农业农村部东海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200094;中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所、农业农村部东海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海 200095)
摘要:
为探讨海南西北部近岸海域浮游动物群落结构,根据2016年11月(秋季)、2017年2月(冬季)、2017年5月(春季)和2017年8月(夏季)4个季节的浮游动物调查数据,对该海域浮游动物的种类组成、优势种及其生态类群、丰度和生物量进行了分析。结果表明:4个季节共鉴定浮游动物7门113属215种(含未定种),秋季最多(134种),冬季(113种)和春季(111种)较为接近,夏季(94种)最少,各季节均以桡足类和水螅水母类占优势。浮游动物种类的空间分布上,秋季和冬季整体呈现近岸和远岸较中间高,而春季和夏季由近岸到远岸呈逐渐增加的变化趋势。浮游动物种类随季节变动不大,但优势种更替较为明显,仅亚强次真哲水蚤(Subeucalanus subcrassus)和肥胖箭虫(Sagitta enflata)为4个季节共有优势种。优势种生态类群主要可分为暖温种、广温广盐种、近岸暖水种、热带暖水种及暖水广布种。浮游动物丰度均值秋季(124.75 ind./m3)与冬季(152.43 ind./m3)相近,春季(64.76 ind./m3)和夏季(74.44 ind./m3)相近,春季、夏季的丰度均值要明显低于秋季、冬季,平面分布上秋季和冬季呈现近岸高远岸低,但不同的是水深在大于20 m以上的海域,冬季平均丰度要稍高于秋季,而春季和夏季呈现近岸低远岸高的变化特点。浮游动物生物量冬季(263.68 mg/m3)最高,秋季(147.38 mg/m3)次之,春季(59.13 mg/m3)和夏季(61.45 mg/m3)相近,平面分布上与丰度分布趋势相似。
关键词:  海洋生物学  浮游动物  优势种  生态类群  丰度  生物量  海南西北部
DOI:
基金项目:中国水产科学研究院基本业务费资助项目(2016HY-JC01)
Zooplankton community structure in nearshore waters of northwest Hainan Island
YANG Jie-qing,OUYANG Long-ling,SHI Yun-rong,CHAO Min,YUAN Qi,WANG Yun-long
(Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090, China)
Abstract:
Based on data obtained from zooplankton surveys conducted in nearshore waters of northwest Hainan Island, in November (autumn) of 2016, February(winter), May(spring) and August(summer) of 2017,the community structure of zooplankton was studied as well as the species composition, dominant species and its ecological groups, biomass and abundance. As result, a total of 215 species in 113 groups of 7 phyla were recored. The species number identified in autumn was the highest (134) and it was very similar in winter (113) and spring (111). The species number found in summer was the lowest (94). Copepoda and Hydrozoa were the most dominant groups. The spacial distribution of zooplankton species was higher in inshore and offshore than in the middle waters in autumn and winter, while it gradually increased from the inshore to offshore waters in spring and summer. The numbers of dominant species changed slightly with seasons except for an obvious succession of dominant species. The common dominant species occurred in 4 seasons is only Subeucalanus subcrassus and Sagitta enflatafor. The dominant species can be divided into 5 ecological groups, included warm water species, euruthermous and euryhaline species, nearshore warm water species, tropical warm water species and cosmopolitan warm water species. The average abundances of zooplankton in autumn (124.75 ind./m3) and winter (152.43 ind./m3) were similar while they were much lower in spring (64.76 ind./m3) and summer (74.44 ind./m3). The horizontal distribution of zooplankton abundance showed higher in the nearshore waters and lower in the offshore waters in autumn and winter. However, the average abundance was slightly higher in winter than autumn in waters deeper than 20 m. In contrast, the abundance was lower in the nearshore waters and it was higher in the offshore in spring and summer. The average abundance was obviously lower in spring and summer than those in winter and autumn. The average biomass of zooplankton was the highest in winter (263.68 mg/m3), the next was in autumn (147.38 mg/m3), summer (61.45 mg/m3) and spring (59.13 mg/m3) in consequence. The distribution pattern of biomass was similar to the abundance distribution.
Key words:  marine biology  zooplankton  dominant species  ecological group  abundance  biomass  northwest Hainan Island

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