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海洋微塑料污染研究进展和问题
龙邹霞,余兴光,金翔龙,任建业
0
(中国地质大学(武汉)海洋学院,湖北 武汉 430074; 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005;中国地质大学(武汉)海洋学院,湖北 武汉 430074; 国家海洋局第二海洋研究所,浙江 杭州 310012)
摘要:
微塑料在海洋环境中广泛分布并不断累积,对海洋生态产生严重影响,已引起世界各国学者、管理者、非政府组织等社会各界的高度关注.海洋微塑料污染研究是近10 a来才发展起来的新兴研究领域,但却发展迅猛,已成为国际研究的热点和前沿.我国海洋微塑料污染研究发展较晚,与国际同行相比还有较大差距,系统性的中文文献也相对较少.本研究在对海洋微塑料污染研究国内外进展进行总结和回顾的基础上,比较分析了我国海洋微塑料污染研究与世界同领域之间的差距,归纳提出海洋微塑料污染研究应从微塑料在海洋中的时空分布、微塑料理化特性以及微塑料的海洋生态效应等三大关键问题加强研究,并围绕这些关键问题在研究方法、技术手段、危害评估标准体系等方面不断规范和创新,以促进我国海洋微塑料污染研究的快速发展.
关键词:  海洋环境科学  微塑料污染  塑料污染  海洋垃圾  海洋环境
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2017.04.017
基金项目:国家海洋局“蓝色海湾”资助项目——海洋垃圾监测、评估与防治技术业务化研究及其示范应用
Progress in marine microplastics pollution research
LONG Zou-xia,YU Xing-guang,JIN Xiang-long,REN Jian-ye
(College of Marine Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) , Wuhan 430074, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen 361005, China;College of Marine Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) , Wuhan 430074, China; Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012, China)
Abstract:
Microplastics is widely distributed in the marine environment and accumulates continuously in the environment and biota, which has a severe impact on marine biota. This new and emerging issue has attracted the attention of scholars, administrators, nongovernmental organizations and other social circles in the world. Marine microplastic pollution is a new research field which has been developing rapidly in the past ten years, and has become the hot spot and frontier in the international scientific community. However, there are still some knowledge gaps between China and other developed nations. This article reviewed the progress in the marine microplastics pollution research, and analyzed the main gaps between China and other developed nations. Three key problems of the marine microplastic pollution research are classified as temporal and spatial distributions, physicochemical properties, and the biological and ecological effects of microplastics in marine environment. It suggested that more standards and innovation in research methodologies, technical means, index for hazard evaluation around the three key problems are required to promote developing marine microplastics pollution research in China.
Key words:  marine environmental science  microplastics pollution  plastic pollution  marine debris  marine environment

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