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日照潮下带海域大型底栖动物春、秋季群落结构特征及其与环境因子的关系
王尽文,王燕,黄娟,王波,王建勇,林森,孙滨
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(山东省海洋生态环境与防灾减灾重点实验室,山东 青岛 266061;国家海洋局北海预报中心,山东 青岛 266061;自然资源部第一海洋研究所,山东 青岛 266071)
摘要:
根据2016年5月和11月在日照潮下带海域进行的调查资料,分析了该海域大型底栖动物的群落结构特征,探讨了其与环境因子的关系。研究海域共鉴定大型底栖动物60种,其中环节动物门30种,节肢动物门16种,软体动物门8种,其他类群6种。春季优势种为巴氏钩毛虫(Sigambra bassi)、扇栉虫(Amphicteis gunneri)、小头虫(Capitella capitata)和醒目云母蛤(Yoldia notabilis);秋季优势种为绒螯近方蟹(Hemigrapsus penscillatus)、索沙蚕科(Lumbrineriiae)1种、哈氏美人虾(Callanssa harmandi)和长鳃树蛰虫(Pista branchia)。春、秋两季平均密度依次为96.83、112.63 ind./m2;平均生物量依次为6.21、14.75 g/m2;平均种类多样性指数依次为1.45、1.66;平均丰度指数依次为0.40、0.44。综合聚类分析和丰度/生物量曲线(ABC曲线)分析表明研究区域大型底栖动物春、秋两季均可划分为4个群落,且群落结构均已受到严重扰动。BIOENV分析表明影响群落结构的主要环境因子为水温、溶解氧、亚硝酸盐、油类和重金属砷;Pearson 相关分析表明影响生物量和密度的主要环境因子为水深、水温、pH、化学需氧量和重金属铜。受人类活动的影响,和历史调查资料相比,研究区域大型底栖动物总物种数目、平均生物量均呈下降趋势。
关键词:  海洋生物学  大型底栖动物  群落结构  丰度/生物量曲线  环境因子  人为干扰  日照
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2021.04.002
基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助项目(2017YFC1405306,2017YFC1404000,2016YFC0300606 02,2016YFC1402103,2017YFC1403700);山东省海洋生态环境与防灾减灾重点实验室基金资助项目(201802)
Community structures of macrobenthos and their relationship with environmental factors in Rizhao subtidal zone in spring and autumn
WANG Jinwen,WANG Yan,HUANG Juan,WANG Bo,WANG Jianyong,LIN Sen,SUN Bin
(Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment & Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Qingdao 266061, China;North China Sea Marine Forecasting Center of SOA, Qingdao 266061, China;First Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Qingdao 266071, China)
Abstract:
To understand species composition and macro-benthic diversity and to assess health of Rizhao subtidal zone ecosystem, the investigation data collected in May and November 2016 are studied. In total,60 species of macrobenthos were identified, among them 30 species were Annelida, 16 were Crustacea,8 were Mollusca and 6 were other groups.Sigambra bassi, Amphicteis gunneri, Capitella capitata, Yoldia notabilis were recorded as dominant species in spring and Hemigrapsus penscillatus, a species of Lumbrineriiae, Callanssa harmandi, Pista branchia were recorded in autumn. The averages density, biomass, Shannon diversity (H′) and Margalefs species richness index (d) were 96.83 ind./m2, 6.21 g/m2, 1.45 and 0.40 in spring and 112.63 ind./m2, 14.75 g/m2, 1.66 and 0.44 in autumn, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that the macrobenthos in Rizhao subtidal zone can be divided into four groups. The ABC curve analysis showed that the four groups were seriously disturbed by human activeties. Results of BVSTEP analysis showed that water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite, oils and arsenic in the sea water were the key environmental factors affecting the macrobenthic community structure. Pearson correlation analysis further showed that depth of water, water temperature, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and copper in the sea water had the most influence on abundance and biomass of macrobenthos. Compared with historical data, the total species, average biomass and average abundance of macrobenthos in the study areas were decreased significantly.
Key words:  marine biology  macrobenthos  community structure  abundance biomass curve  environmental factor  human disturbance  Rizhao

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