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海洋微塑料污染与塑料降解微生物研究进展
邵宗泽,董纯明,郭文斌,骆祝华
0
(自然资源部第三海洋研究所、自然资源部海洋生物遗传资源重点实验室、厦门市海洋生物遗传资源重点实验室(省部共建重点实验室培育基地)、福建省海洋生物遗传资源重点实验室,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
塑料垃圾在近海、大洋水体和沉积物中均广泛存在,并不断累积,对海洋生态系统构成了重大威胁,引起了国际社会的高度关注。本研究从环境生态和塑料降解微生物两个角度回顾了近几年相关方向上的研究进展,包括国内外海洋塑料特别是海洋微塑料在近海与深海等环境中的分布与丰度,以及近海、大洋等环境中降解菌多样性及其降解机制。总体而言,微塑料广泛分布在多种海洋环境,特别是在河口和近海的海水和沉积物,近岸沙滩,以及大洋环流中心;目前已报道的塑料降解菌及其降解酶主要来自陆地土壤和塑料垃圾处理环境,并以聚对苯二甲酸乙二酯(Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET)降解菌和降解酶的研究最为深入。当前,中国科学家已在近海、大洋深海(深渊)以及极地等大洋环境中,开展了微塑料分布特征和丰度调查,并在生态危害方面开展了研究,但在海洋塑料降解微生物方面还鲜有报道。塑料在海洋环境中的最终归宿以及微生物在塑料降解过程中的作用亟待评估,建议在大洋深海科考中整体布局、联合开展这两个方面的相关研究。
关键词:  海洋生物学  海洋微塑料  深海归宿  生态危害  生物降解  海洋微生物
DOI:
基金项目:中国大洋协会深海生物资源计划资助项目(DY135-B2-01)
Marine microplastic distribution and plastic degrading microorganisms: a review
SHAO Zong-ze,DONG Chun-ming,GUO Wen-bin,LUO Zhu-hua
(Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR; State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources; Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of Fujian Province, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Plastics widely exist and accumulate constantly in various marine environments of coastal and even pelagic waters seas. The environmental persistence of plastics and their detrimental impacts on both marine ecosystems and the human health have attracted public attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the recent advances in marine microplastics (MP) study from two sides, the MP in marine ecosystem and the MPdegrading microorganisms. In general, MP widely distribute in various marine environments, especially in estuary, coastal waters, sediments, beaches and oceanic circulation centers. Currently reported plasticdegrading microorganisms are mainly isolated from terrestrial soil, plastic waste recycle and landfill sites, and the wellstudied degraders are related to the decomposition of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Recently in China, the marine surveys on MP distribution, abundance and ecotoxicological effects extend from coastal areas to pelagic oceans, even deep trenches and polar regions. However, the knowledge on MPdegrading bacteria is very limited. It is urgent to improve our understandings of MP fate in marine environments, especially in deep sea and their interactions with marine bacteria that live on plastics. MP investigations should be encouraged to integrate MP survey and marine microbiology to efficiently evaluate MP influences on marine ecosystem.
Key words:  marine biology  marine microplastic  deep-sea fate  ecological hazard  biodegradation  marine microorganism

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