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海岸围垦工程对三门湾内潮汐振幅的影响与研究
杨万康,尹宝树,杨青莹,宋泽坤
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(1.中国科学院海洋研究所,山东 青岛 266071; 2.中国科学院海洋环流与波动重点实验室,山东 青岛 266071; 3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049; 4.自然资源部第二海洋研究所,浙江 杭州 310012)
摘要:
近年来随着三门湾内围垦工程规模的不断扩大,三门湾的岸线及水深地形发生了显著变化,有必要重新评估三门湾内的潮汐振幅特征。本研究基于ADCIRC二维潮汐模型,开展了三门湾围垦工程实施前后潮汐振幅变化规律的研究。结果表明:三门湾内以半日潮为主,湾口和湾顶处振幅相差较大。单纯考虑围垦工程引起的岸线变化时,半日潮振幅受到的影响较为明显,振幅以减小为主,M2分潮减小幅度为0.08~0.10 m。采用经验公式预测了围垦工程造成的最终回淤量,围垦工程附近平均淤积为1.5~2.5 m,深水区附近淤积更加严重。当考虑了回淤导致的地形变化后,围垦工程区附近的潮汐振幅会有显著的减小,半日分潮减小幅度要远大于全日分潮,在围垦区域前沿,M2分潮振幅减小幅度较为明显,然后向外侧逐步减小。与单纯岸线变化相比,水深地形改变导致的潮汐振幅变化幅度要远大于前者。
关键词:  海洋水文学  围垦工程  天文分潮  岸线变化  淤积  三门湾
DOI:
基金项目:浙江省自然科学基金青年基金项目资助(LQ16D060007)
Impacts of coastal reclamation on the tidal amplitude of Sanmen Bay
YANG Wan-kang,YIN Bao-shu,YANG Qing-ying,SONG Ze-kun
(Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Hangzhou 310012, China)
Abstract:
In recent years, the shoreline and bathymetry changed significantly after the reclamation projects in Sanmen Bay. It is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of tidal amplitude once again. A two-dimension tidal model is established based on ADCIRC to study the changes of tidal amplitude after the reclamation projects. The results show that the semidiurnal tide is dominant in Sanmen Bay where the tidal amplitude differed significantly between the bay mouth and the bay top. The change of shoreline by reclamation projects affected obviously the semidiurnal tidal amplitude. Thus, M2 constituent amplitude decreases from 0.08 m to 0.10 m. Here, experimental formula is used to calculate the sediment siltation by the reclamation projects. The average siltation near the reclamation projects is from 1.5 m to 2.5 m and the siltation at the deep-water zone is much higher. When the bathymetry change caused by siltation is considered, the tidal amplitudes near the reclamation engineering area are dramatically reduced and the amplitudes of semidiurnal tidal constituents decrease much more than that of diurnal tidal constituents. The amplitude of M2 tidal constituent decreases obviously in the vicinity of reclamation projects and gradually to the offshore waters. The change of tidal amplitude caused by bathymetry is much serious than that by shoreline.
Key words:  marine hydrology  reclamation projects  tidal constituents  shoreline change  siltation  Sanmen Bay

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